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Varietal Improvement Of Makapuno Hybrid

Varietal improvement of Makapuno hybrid coconut is to obtain new Makapuno hybrid varieties which are high yielding and producing Makapuno kernel tasting like the sweetened curd with the same flavor to satisfy the demand of the domestic and export market. Meanwhile, the aromatic coconut variety is indigenous in Thailand so that the aromatic Makapuno dwarf type can be improved by cross pollinating with the aromatic green dwarf variety. The experiment trial established at Kunthuli Coconut Seed Garden in Surat Thani Rubber Research Centre During1993 – 2006 is briefly explained. It was established in 1996 as a Randomized Complete Block Design consisting of 5 hybrid crosses with makapuno as male parent i.e. Nam Hom (aromatic cocnut) x Makapuno = (NHM), Malayan Yellow Dwarf x Makapuno = (YDM), Malayan Red Dwarf x Makapuno = (RDM), Thungklet (sweet water coconut) x Makapuno = TKM and West African tall x Makapuno (WAM). 

The results of this experiment indicate that the RDM and TKM started flowering early within 27 months, YDM in 29 months, NHM in 31 months and WAM in 36 months respectively. The half of the (50%) TKM palms produced inflorescences by 36 months from the planting and 50 % of YDM, RDM, NHM and WAM produced inflorescences by 37, 38, 39 and 48 months respectively. The highest makapuno nut yield of 661 nut/rai/3 years (4,131 nut/ha/3years) and ordinary nuts of 2,717 nut/rai/3 years (16,981 nut/ha/3 years) was produced by YDM. The late bearing WAM showed yield of ordinary nuts 1,569 nut/rai/3 years (9,806 nut / ha). The YDM reported the highest income from ordinary and makapuno nuts of Thai Baht 28,008 (US$ 903) rai/3years or Baht 175,080 (US$5,646) ha/3years, the total income from the WAM amounted to Thai Baht 13,764 (US$444) rai/3years or Baht 86,028 (US$ 2,775) ha/3years. However, the NHM produced ordinary and makamuno nuts of 1,917 nut/rai/3years, out of that about 55% of this hybrid gave aromatic makapuno nuts which has higher price than the makapuno nuts. He also said that the aromatic makapuno dwarf can further be improved by using embryo culture technique.  

It can be concluded that the results of this study  found that YDM and NHM hybrids were suitable for the Department of Agriculture to utilize in the initial years of national planting and replanting program to increase farmer’s income 3 to 4 times higher than planting ordinary coconut.

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